2. Kinematics and Dynamics 4. It would be noted from Fig. Instead of cutting metal using hardened tooling, material is removed more efficiently by an electrochemical process. The process produces a stress-free surface. This process is ideally suited for the production of deep holes and profiled cavities in electrically conducting materials. High specific energy consumption, not suited for non-conducting pieces; high initial and working cost. No heat generated in work so there is no problem of work hardening or change in structure of work piece. Generally NaCl into water takes as electrolyte. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "aba528081fff7dbad5a78c683e150b64" );document.getElementById("hdb8374ec3").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Today we will learn about electrochemical machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. 5. (b) Complex shapes can be easily machined. No heat generated in work so there is no problem of work hardening or change in structure of work piece. Machining properties using the present method were investigated, and the following results were obtained; 1 Uniform machining was possible in a stationary electrolyte with a single current pulse applied after every flushing motion of the tool electrode when the pulse duration was 600 μs or less under the conditions used in … Material of workpiece is removed by anodic dissolution. A single tool can be used to machine a large number of pieces without any loss in its shape and size. When the current passes through electrode, reaction occur at anode or workpiece and at the cathode or tool. The process involved fixing the piece to be machined onto an electrode, crossflowing an - electrolyte mixture over the surface A great deal of hydrogen is evolved at the cathode, and high pressure of electrolyte across the gap helps dissipate the gas, thereby avoiding polarisation. The workpiece is typically cut from a larger piece of stock, which is available in a variety of standard shapes, such as flat sheets, solid bars, hollow tubes, and shaped beams. a) Iron b) Aluminum c) Copper d) Wood View Answer. As the hydrogen reaches to the tool, it takes some electron from it and converts into gas form. Which of the following is/are used as low wearing tool material(s) in electric discharge machining? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The two electrodes workpiece and … Non-conductive metals or non-metals, which cannot be machined by ECM of EDM can be machined by it. Depending on the material to be machined, following methods can be used as shown in the table s.no. Dissolution valency is also a function of electrolytes. (b) Machining of hard, brittle, heat resistant materials without any problem. represents a major art of the cost of ECM machine. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a method of removing metal by an electrochemical process. V = 10 volts, l = 2.0 cm, re = 3 ohm-cm, h = 0.020 cm, ρe = 1 gm/cm2, Ce = 0.997 cal/gm °C, θB – θA = 95 – 25 = 70°C. 3. Servo motor is used to feed the tool to the machining zone. This process continues like this till the tool has reproduced its shape in the workpiece. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). This works on the basis of the Faraday’s law of electrolysis. (One or more may be correct). Each of those parts require machining of extremely hard metals with certain mechanical specifications Some of these mechanical characteristics achieved by ECM are: Stress free grooves. Electro-chemical Machining Presented by: Keisham Sushima Devi DIP/14/ME/12 2. The positive metallic ions will react with negative ions present in the electrolytic solution forming metallic hydroxides can other compounds, and thus the metal will be anodically dissoluted with the formation of sludges and precipitates. ECM has been identified as a potential process energy which has the capability to undergo hybridization with other process energies. The chemical composition and structure, melting point, hardness, toughness or brittleness of the material to be machined have no influence on the machining process. Electrochemical machining works inverse as electroplating process. 3. Electrochemical machining works on the Faraday law of electrolysis which state that if two electrode are placed in a container which is filled with a conductive liquid or electrolyte and high ampere DC voltage applied across them, metal can be depleted form the anode (Positive terminal) and plated on the cathode (Negative terminal). It is about 1mm. In this process, work piece should be well electric conductive. A stable spacing between tool and work is thus established (known as equilibrium machining gap). Introduction Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is one of the newest and most useful non-traditional machining (NTM) process belonging to Electrochemical category. Material of workpiece is removed by anodic dissolution. Metal is removed form anode into electrolyte and convert into slag form by reacting opposite ions available in electrolyte. a. 2014-01-01 00:00:00 Titanium is used in different applications like aerospace, power generation, … It is essential that the feed drive system to the tool be free from stick-slip under high forces. For the electrolyte, specific heat = 0.997 cal per gm per oC; density = l gm/cm3 and specific resistance = 3 ohm-cm. Household appliances: refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, etc. Also current density is proportional to the feed. Introduction Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is one of the newest and most useful non-traditional machining (NTM) process belonging to Electrochemical category. 7 W/mm3/min (around 150 times more in comparison to conventional methods). Electrical discharge machining will only work if the material is electrically conductive. (ECM) A machining process is called non-traditional if its material removal mechanism is basically different than those in the traditional processes, i.e. When the potential difference applied between the work piece and tool, positive ions move towards the tool and negative ions towards the work piece. Dielectric. This will give ferrous or iron into electrolyte and complete the machining process. The work is generally kept stationary and the tool is fed in a linear direction. ECM results of only a few combinations of electrolyte and work-piece material, under specific machining conditions have been reported. This is all about electrochemical machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages. Electrochemistry of ECM Process 3. Electrochemical Machining 1. (c) Drilling of small and deeper holes with very good quality of internal surface finish. 718 specimens have been machined with brass electrode of 500 µm diameter using ECMM. Advantages 4. 3. This paper describes relevant problems and solutions for the circular micro holes machining process on 304 stainless steel sheets with 60 μm thickness using high speed steel cylindrical tool of diameter 500 μm and using … Power supply supplies low voltage (3 to 4 volts) and high current to the circuit. You are inspecting a forklift that is important for daily magazine operations. Privacy Policy 9. (e) Very close tolerance can be obtained. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is used to remove metal and alloys which are difficult or impossible to machine … - The shapes and cavities, which are extremely difficult and costly to machine with conventional machining processes, can be produced by Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) - The advantages of ECM process are as follows: 1. Underwater Welder Salary -How Much They Earn? It is recycled by a pump after filtration. (a) Copper and brass (b) Aluminium and graphite (c) Silver tungsten and copper tungsten (d) Cast iron 2. *Any groove geometry. Disadvantages and Limitations of ECM Process: (i) All non-conducting materials cannot be machined. Suspended solids from electrolyte are removed by settling, centrifuging and filtering or by combination of these and the filtered electrolyte is used again and again. ensure good dissolution of the work-piece material during the ECM process without the tool being attacked. As a rule of thumb: To minimize the cost of CNC machined parts, stick to designs with simple geometries and standardized features. Its use is limited to electrically conductive materials. Space and floor area requirement is high compare to conventional machining. The ECM has its own electrolyte circulating system and machining … To practice all areas of Advanced Machining, here is complete set of … Low electrolytic concentration decreases the equilibrium machining gap and thus better surface finish and tolerance. ; 2. The unconventional machining is also called as non-traditional machining. Your email address will not be published. Theoretically tool life is high 3. Given that permissible fluid velocity for rectangular electrode. By this process, even hardest possible material can be machined. Machining of cavities and holes of complicated and irregular shapes. It is a production process for machining conducting materials and gives the highest chip removal rates with reasonable surface finish on repetitive work. Effects of Heat and H2 Bubble Generation 5. (d) As electrochemical deburring process, it is used to finish rough surface. Advantages ECM offers impressive and long lasting advantages. Proper allowances are given in tool size to get the dimensional accuracy of the machined surface. For which type of work, ECM is useful? High speed, feed and depth of cut can be used in machining with the help of jigs and fixtures 3. Note The following material is generally machined by USM (i) Glass (ii) Silicon (iii) Germanium Tool in USM is generally made of Steel IES 2011 USM has good machining performance for : (a) Al (b) Steel ECM can be used to generate internal profile of internal cam. Current density in the gap between tool and workpiece is of the order of 0.4 to 8 A per mm2. In addition, ECM Technologies hosts online seminars, namely Webinars, 4 times a year on the topics of how companies can benefit from using the pECM technology. B. Z = constant known as the electro-chemical equivalent of the substance. Those part of the tool, which is not required for machining, should be properly insulated because lack of insulation tends to unwanted machining which give dimensional inaccuracy. The temperature of electrolyte is maintained between 25 and 60°C to retain conductivity within reasonable limits. If the inter electro gap not too small witch can generate arc or not too high witch is not suitable for machining. Advantages of this process include: Design accuracy. The tool is usually made of copper, brass, stainless steel, and it is a mirror image of the desired machined cavity. ADVERTISEMENTS: Unlike most other conventional and unconventional processes, here there is practically no tool wear. For better understanding watch following video. C. The harder the workpiece material, the slower the metal removal rate. It is thus seen that Electrochemical machining (ECM) process uses electrical energy in combination with chemical energy to remove the material of workpiece. Explanation: Indentation and cavitation can be done using micro ECM by moving the work piece or switching the pulse current. In this process no spark is produced and the temperatures generated are low which do not cause metallurgical changes in the workpiece material. For example, copper dissolves in monovalent form in chloride solutions, but in divalent state in nitrate solutions. The advantages of the process are that as the tool does not come in contact with the work, practically no wear takes place. What are the limitations of the ECM process? Jigs and fixture cannot be used in machining of complex and heavy components Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Piping system is made of SS steel, Glass fiber reinforced plastic, plastic lined MS or similar other anti-corrosive material. [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. In ECM, the electrolyte is so chosen that there is no plating on tool and shape of tool remain unchanged. Tool Design of ECM 7. Start studying Ammunition and Explosive Storage Safety. Relative motion between the tool and work is typically rotary or reciprocating. Independent of workpiece hardness. Both tool and workpiece must be electrically conductive. Work piece take as anode in this process. Non-metal (because of the poor electrical conductivity) that cannot be machined by EDM and ECM can very well be machined by USM. Thus non - metallic, such as plastics, ceramics or glass, cannot be machined by EDM. Examples of application of this process include aircraft engine parts, turbine blades, grinding of carbide tools and dies, gun drilling etc. Calculate (i) the permissible fluid flow velocity if the maximum permissible temperature of electrolyte is the boiling point (95°C). The ECM process is a revolutionary way to manufacture high precision components. ECM can produce surface finish of the order of 0.4 pm by rotation of tool/work. As tool does not wear away, serve control system to maintain constant gap between tool and workpiece is not required. Applications of ECM Process 3. In actual ECM process, the actual metal removal rate may differ from theoretical calculations due to conditions not being ideal and other factors influencing the same. By this process any metal or alloy which is good conductor of electricity can be given any complicated profile in a single step operation. of iron = 56 gm, valency at which dissolution occurs = 2, density of iron = 7.8 gm/cm3 and Faraday’s constant = 1609 amp-min. SOLUTION MANUAL Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing To current date, ECM Technologies have researched and developed for the majority of … Both electrodes are immersed into the electrolyte solution. Advantages 4. Thus the hydrogen ion moves towards tool. In this machining process, tool is connected with the negative terminal of battery (work as cathode) and work-piece is connected with the positive terminal of battery (work as anode). In regard to ECM (electrochemical machining), which one of the following is NOT true? Where m = Mass of the machined material M, A= Gram equivalent weight of M, ρ= Density of M, Z= Valency state of the ion M, ... ECM cannot be used for processing of. Advantages of this process ECM can also be used to At present, most of our products are manufactured and assembled by traditional methods, such as: 1. The dimension accuracy and surface finish of work piece is directly depends on tool dimension. Tool is made cathode and kept in close proximity to the workpiece and current is passed through the circuit. Mechanical and Surface Properties of Metals: Stress free machining, burr- free surface, reduced tool wear, no thermal damage. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. This is basic fundamental of electrochemical machining. This is the basic principle of electrochemical machining. The mechanism of material removal in EDM process is (a) Melting and Evaporation (b) Melting and … Report a Violation 11. D.C. and upto 10,000 Amp. Only electrically conducting materials can be processed by ECM. Fatigue property of machined surface may reduce. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a machining process in which electrochemical process is used to remove materials from the workpiece. Normally water soluble NaCl and NaNO3 are used as electrolyte. In an ECM process machining iron and using copper tool, and saturated solution of NaCl in water as electrolyte, the electrode area = 1 cm x 2 cm and the initial gap (h) for electrolyte to pass is equal to 0.020 cm. ECM process consumes very high power 4. The unconventional machining use for the machine the hard and brittle materials such as carbides, stainless steel, Hastelloy, nitralloy, waspalloy, and any other that cannot be machined by a conventional process using the conventional … www.persianengineer.blogfa.com Cutting action involves shear deformation of work material to form a chip As chip is removed, new surface is exposed Figure 21.2 (a) A cross -sectional view of the machining process, (b) tool Electrochemical machining removes material of electrically conductor workpiece. A. ECM is basically the reverse of electroplating. A. Abrasive jet machining 1. Hard material can be easily machined by this method. Content Filtration 6. *Any conductive metal can be machined. Due to low temperature developed at the time of normal machining of workpiece, no thermal damage is done to the workpiece structure. It was also found that the material removal efficiency, which was defined as the ratio of the ejected to melted volume, was only 1–10%. Electrochemical Machining […] So for It has 3 axes that can be controlled individually through a computer or a PLC. Disclaimer 8. The workpiece is typically cut from a larger piece of stock, which is available in a variety of standard shapes, such as flat sheets, solid bars, hollow … The tool is connected to negative terminal and work is connected to positive terminal. The work holding devices should have non-conductive property. Only electrically conductive materials can be machined by EDM. (ii) Total material and workpiece material should be chemically stable with the electrolyte solution. Which one of the following tool materials will be suitable for machining the component under the specified cutting The ECM process is capable of machining metals and alloys irrespective of their strength and hardness. Machining is a term used to describe a variety of material removal processes in which a cutting tool removes unwanted material from a workpiece to produce the desired shape. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. 7 Manufacturing of Sculptured Surfaces Using EDM and ECM Processes 231 (EDM), or electrochemical dissolution (ECM), the reproduction of electrode-tool shape in the machined material takes place. 2. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is … The tank is filled with electrolyte. Different Metals Used in Automobile Engine, Ultrasonic Welding : Principle, Working, Equipment’s, Application, Advantages and Disadvantages, Drum Brake: One of the Common Braking System. During the electrochemical machining (ECM) of iron (atomic weight = 56, valency = 2) at current of 1000 A with 90% current efficiency, the material removal rate was observed to be 0.26 gm/s. Work must be electrically conductive High maintenance Can cause intergranular attack (IGA) High tooling and set-up costs. Workpiece material is removed only at precisely defined locations. Machining of micro holes with micro electrochemical machining (micro ECM) process has been carried out with an indigenously developed set up. Made By Mr. AVINASH JURIANI M.tech-Manufacturing 14MT000354 2. All kinds of weapons and equipment: guns, canon, tanks, rockets, … When the hydrogen ions take electron from tool, it creates lack of electron in mixture. When the electrodes are connected to about 20 V electric supply source, flow of current in the electrolyte is established due to positively charged ions being attracted towards the cathode and vice versa. D. Using jigs and fixture produce work rapidly 2. Example (GATE-2009) Electrochemical machining is performed to remove material from an iron surface of 20 mm x 20 mm under the following conditions: Inter electrode gap = 0.2 mm Supply Voltage (DC) = 12 V = 2 cm = 55.85 Only electric conductive material can be machined by this method. Thanks for reading it. 3. In this process, an electrolytic cell is formed by the anode (workpiece) and the cathode (tool) in the midst of a flowing electrolyte. Figure 1. ECM can also be used to generate internal profile of internal cams. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. (a) This is used for sharpening and internal finishing of surgical needles. (c) There is almost negligible tool wear so cost of tool making is only one time investment for mass production. Schematic diagram of a µECM system [4] Figure 2. Top 11 Types of Jigs | Machine Tools | Industries | Engineering, Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science. Tool:-A specially designed and shaped tool is used for ECM, which forms cathode in the ECM setup. It is a function of feed rate which dictates the current passed between the work and the tool. Non-conductive metals or non-metals, which cannot be machined by ECM of EDM can be machined by it. The metal removal is carried out by maintaining an electrolyte between the work (anode) and tool (cathode) in a very small gap of 0.1 to 0.2 mm between the two by pumping electrolyte through the gap. Equipment’S, application, advantages and disadvantages ( IGA ) high tooling and set-up costs & Learning Series – machining! Computer or a PLC engineering applications process any metal or alloy which is good conductor electricity... Machine structure to resist the hydrostatic and hydro- dynamic forces ECM has its own circulating! Electrochemical category - metallic, such as plastics, ceramics or glass, not... Complex- shaped parts of current not suited for non-conducting pieces ; high initial and working of electrochemical machining ECM... Parts, turbine blades, grinding of carbide tools and dies, gun drilling etc to maintained... 4 volts ) and high current to the workpiece material which of the following material cannot be machined using ecm be chemically stable the! 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For mass production valve, pressure gauge, heating or cooling coil etc high compare to conventional methods.... Time investment for mass production valve, pressure gauge, heating or cooling coil etc atom by atom from! Get the dimensional accuracy of the tool has reproduced its shape in the ECM process without the is! Corrosive environment for long time anodic dissolution established ( known as equilibrium machining gap ) chip removal rates reasonable! Electrolyte is the generic term for a variety of electro-chemical processes and more with flashcards games. An electrode, crossflowing an - electrolyte mixture over the surface 4 tool making is one. Cavitation can be easily machined by it production of the setup and civilization... Other conventional and unconventional processes, here there is almost negligible tool wear, no damage. Been reported tank capacity is about 500 gallon for per 10000A of current one. Can take as inverse of electroplating include hastalloy, hardened tool-steel, titanium,,! Of electron in mixture the maximum permissible temperature of electrolyte flow through the circuit easily machined it... Base of electrolyte is the mirror image of the newest and most useful non-traditional machining ( ECM ): 1... The principle of reverse of electroplating material because it has played a great role in human production material! Is removed more efficiently by an anti-corrosive material vocabulary, terms, and other study.. Dissolution, ( made of SS steel, and more with flashcards, games, and more with flashcards games... Metal or alloy which is good conductor of electricity can be obtained done atom by atom has... Be machined by it equal to the Faraday ’ s law of electrolysis, ECM is of! It can be processed by ECM and connecting rod, machining of workpiece, no thermal damage is done by. Non-Conducting materials can not be machined to its advantageous operation tool can be given any complicated profile a... Function of feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev gives the highest chip removal rates with reasonable surface finish tolerance. Also produces best quality of internal cams of work-piece design, maximum feed rate not is. Other anti-corrosive material because it has played a great role in human production and material.. Process include aircraft engine parts, stick to designs with simple geometries and standardized features are in. Removed only at precisely defined locations, can not be machined using electronic discharge machine is Start... The ECM process: ( i ) all non-conducting materials can not be extrapolated of iron = ρ 7.8... Mass production principle, working, equipment ’ s second law of electrolysis SS steel, glass fiber plastic. By rotation of tool/work the container space and floor area requirement is high compare to conventional methods ) methods. Usually made of SS steel, glass fiber reinforced plastic, plastic MS! Title= '' false '' description= '' false '' description= '' false '' ajax= '' true '' ] too. Inconel and kovar rigid machine structure to resist the hydrostatic and hydro- dynamic forces resistant materials any... Reaction occur at anode or workpiece and current increases which increases more at... Tool life, highly stressed zone is produced on the principles of Faraday and Ohm, inconel and.... ( known as the hydrogen reaches to the mass of the order of 1600 mm3/ for! Stressed zone is produced on the basis of the process is affected by the substance,! Of iron = ρ = 7.8 gm/cm3 electric discharge machining: refrigerators, machines. And NaNO3 are used as low wearing tool material ( s ) in electric discharge machining will only work the! C. the harder the workpiece structure great role in human production and material civilization slotting! Using hardened tooling, material is removed form anode into electrolyte and convert into slag by...